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History of craps
Craps are probably the oldest device used in gambling.Their origin is difficult to determine, one thing is certain: craps up till now are inseparable, universal element of games, known around the world.
The origin of craps
There are few sources of origin of craps. Historians claim that craps were found in Egyptian tombs and Indian crypts. They were probably invented in different regions of the worlds, by different civilizations, independently of each other. craps were known to ancient Greeks, who, as mentioned by Sophocles, played in the during the siege of Troy. Also in Indian culture craps played a special role, ancient Indian theogony myth describes the process of creation of the world by means of four throes of craps.
Popularization and evolution of craps in the Antiquity era
For the first craps people used ankle bones of animals, because their shape resembled tetrahedron. Such craps were used among upper class in ancient Greece and later in Roman Empire, where they quickly grew to be a fundamental tool of gambling. The law prevailing than in Rome allowed playing craps only during Saturnalia. However, this law was being broken all the time by most of the society. Although severe penalties were introduced for gambling in such way (for instance a person who was gambling in his home was then deprived of the possibility of filing a suit in case of fraud or assault), they were not able to stop people from gambling. On the contrary, gambling was flourishing. craps in Roman times continued to evolved, their shape and and material from which they were made underwent changes. craps made of wood, stone or casted from metal started to be used.
Craps in the Middle Ages
The fascination with this ancient game did not disappear in the Middle Ages. craps were then favorite entertainment among knights. Schools, where one could learn how to play craps, were arising massively, as well as guilds uniting the circle of constantly growing fans of the game. Gambling, including craps, attracted also European royal courts. craps were very popular in the English court, Richard the Lionheart and Henry VIII used to play in them, the latter one, who was the greatest lover of gambling in the history of English court. which during a game of craps, lost the bells in the Cathedral of St. Paul with one throw. Fashion for craps reaches the Byzantine Empire, where Constantine VIII was playing in them with much dedication, reportedly he died during a game. craps game was not reserved only for the elite. Also, lower social classes practiced craps using among others, pieces of wood, shells, seeds or stones.
The meaning of craps
From the very beginning people were looking for a diving principle in the game of craps. In ancient Greece and in Roman Empire people were convinced that a goddess in charge of human fate (in Rome Fortune, in Greece Tyche) has an impact on the results of the game. It was believed that what falls out in a throw is a will of god. Therefore by using craps important issues such as election of rulers or divisions of property were settled. craps were also an important element of Divination.
Currently craps which are used around the world do not resemble the old ones. Together with the development of technology new methods to produce craps have appeared, mainly from artificial materials which led to creation of innovative shapes and enlarge their availability. Craps have become a universal tool used in many board, role play or fighting games. They were also some kind of “base” for popular domino game. Craps today are mainly popular in asian countries.
Craps in land based casinos
A modern version of craps was introduced in the 19th century by American politician and gambling fan Bernard Xavier Philippe de Marigny de Mandeville. However there was a mistake in his version, which gave players an advantage over the casino. It was changed by John H Winn who introduced an option “don’t pass” and until now in casinos playing craps is based on this version.Winn revolutionized the game of craps and is now called the “father of modern craps”. After the legalization of gambling in Nevada in 1930 craps quickly became popular in casinos in the gambling capital of the world - Las Vegas. Currently, casinos around the world offer players the game of craps, which combine elements of games of chance with strategic games. In casinos craps game takes place at a special table, which is designed for maximum 16 players. 2 dice are used for a game. Each player take part in in the series of throws, however throwing is not mandatory. Bets “pass line” are the most popular type of the bet, where the advantage of the casinos is 1,4% therefore they are the most beneficial.
Craps in casinos online
Craps can also be played in online casinos. Craps game online works with the same principles as in its traditional version. The player chooses from a pool of possible bets one that best suits him and predicts a result of roll of two dice. In the online casino craps game random number generators are used, which accurately reflect the actual probability of the game. Virtual tables are distinguished by original design and all sorts of visual and sound effects offered by the online casino significantly increase the attractiveness of the game.